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Incoterm SPD 10/25

Incoterm 10/25
Incoterm, Inc. of Wellesley and Northborough, Mass. Founded by ex Raytheon engineers Jean Tariot and James Upton in 1968. The company filed for the trademarks INCOTERM, SPD and the I symbol in 1970. It was acquired by Honeywell in 1977 and was operated as an independent subsidiary of Honeywell Information Systems until the 1980s. The first employees were Margaret Marsden (secretary), Neil Frieband (Director of Engineering) and Doug Kendrick (Director of Engineering). Neil was mostly responsible for the Digital portion of the SPD 10/20 while Doug was responsible mostly for the analog portions.

The name of the company was derived from INtelligent COmputer TERMinals - Incoterm. 
Incoterm manufactured a line of intelligent terminals, actually small programmable computers, SPD 10/20, SPD 20/20 and SPD 900, terminal controllers as well as ATM equipement.

Clients of the company included Wells Fargo, Security Pacific, Barclays, TWA, United, American, Delta, Braniff and the Florida Department of Motor Vehicles. At the time, the majority of airline reservations around the world were booked through Incoterm systems. 


There were a number of US patents filed by Incoterm among them 3593316 and 3639911 which was related to terminals and then also a few related to cash dispensing machines and card readers.

Incoterm in Sweden

In Sweden the Incoterm line of terminals were sold by Växjö Data System AB. Incoterm terminals were used by the Swedish Libris II system. The Libris system was used by the larger libraries in Sweden. The LIBRIS II system is described in this document by Lennart Gärdvall. The system was based on a DataSAAB D223 main frame and D5/30 front end computers. The Incoterm SPD 10/20 terminals connects to this system.

A number of texts has been produced based on the LIBRIS system and its use in the libraries.

A similar system was also used in Norway and Finland.

Meeting Neil Frieband
While visiting New York I was fortunate enough to be able to make arrangements to meet Neil Frieband in person. This meeting took place at the Rhode Island Computer Museum (RICM). Neil drove from Massachusetts and I took the train from New York Penn station to Kingston, Rhode Island.

The people from RICM showed us their amazing collection of old computers and we talked about a bit about the beginnings of Incoterm and the development of the computing industry. 

Neil also brought some very interesting Incoterm artefacts which he gave to me,  for example the Incoterm SPD/DOS Diskette Operating System Operators Reference Manual to the right and the reprints of ads form "Air Transport World" below. He also had a eight 8 disks with interesting content. Thank you very much Neil!




This is a list of Incoterm documentation 

 Publications Catalog - Second Edition     MS-7159
 SPD/DOS Manuals 
 SPD D-250 Diskette Reference Manual MS-7143
 SPD/DOS Diskette Operating System Operators Reference Manual MS-7177
 SPD/DOS Diskette Operating System Programmers Reference Manual MS-7178
 Assembler Manual 
 SPD Symbolic Assembly Language Reference Manual MS-7215
 SPD 10/20 Manuals 
 SPD 10/20 Intelligent Terminal System Description MS-7145
 SPD 10/20 Programmers Reference manual MS-7110
 SPD 10/25 Manuals 
 SPD 10/25 Intelligent Terminal System Description MS-7199
 SPD 10/25 Intelligent Terminal System Programmers Reference MS-7217
 SPD 20/20 Manuals 
 SPD 20/20 Multi station Display Programmers Reference MS-7144
 SPD 20/20 Multi Station Display System Description MS-7165
 SPD 20/20 Multi Station Display System Operators Manual  MS-7190
 SPD 320/325 
 SPD 320/325 Video Terminal System Description MS-7158
 SPD 320 Video terminal System IBM 3270 Comp. "Plus" B. MS-7172
 Communications Manuals 
 Communication Controller Reference Manual     MS-7152
 Incoterm Data Communications Manual CS-015
 Incoterm SPD 900 Remote Batch Terminal Systems Operators Manual MS-7129
 Remote Load Controller Reference Manual MS-7121
 Cyclic Check Controller Reference Manual (with addendum) MS-7122
 Communication Controller Reference Manual     MS-7152
 Data Entry 
 Incoform Source Data Entry System Description manual    MS-7205
 Incoform Source Data Entry System Description Brochure MS-
 Incoform Source Data Entry System Operators Manual MS-7208
 Incoform Forms Generation Manuals MS-7209
 Peripheral Equipment Manuals 
 SPD P-100 Printer Reference Manual MS-7123
 SPD-165/ SPD P-165B Printers Reference Manual    MS-7218
 SPD PRP-45/200 Printing Reader Punch Operators Manual MS-7154
 SPD PRP-45/200 Printing Reader Punch Product Bulletin MS-7204
 Magnetic Tape Units Reference Manual MS-7153
 SPD-MT Tape Units Product Bulletin MS-7162
 SPD-T Cassette Product Bulletin MS-7201
 Manuals by Växjö Data System (VDS) 
 Operatörskurs SPD/DOS 

Our Incoterm unit

The unit in our collection was received from Ericsson were it had been used as a terminal. 
Programmers Reference

In the early seventies an Ericsson employee, Seved Torstendahl, developed  a Pascal compiler residing in the IBM System/360 that produced binaries for DEC PDP-11 series of computers. The compiler is often referred to as ”Swedish Pascal” and the development was made by means of exactly this Incoterm terminal.
Actually we do not really know what model this is. We have got indications from the Incoterm Alumni group on LinkedIn that this is in fact a SPD 10/20.

Further study into the subject of model give that in the 10/20 the display memory was shared with the program memory in the 4k core memory. The updated 10/25 had the display memory on a separate card which was populated with semiconductor memories. This machine has the extra board and thus is a 10/25.

The Display unit contains the CPU which is a discrete TTL implementation and a core memory. This is one of the five large boards inside the display unit.

CPU board
The board has two bipolar MMI PROM and five MOSTEK MK4007 chips. 
Other than that the board contain mostly LS TTL ICs dated in 1975-1976. We guess that this is one of the CPU boards. 

The core memory board is manufactured by Fuji Electrochemicals and has socketed chips dated 1972!

Core memory
Aside from this there are a number of small boards in the display unit which is assumed to be various interfaces and logic for the display itself. This has 8 Intersil 6003 chips which is supposed to be 2kx1 RAM chips. Thus 2kbyte of memory which makes sense if it is a display board. This board is the one that make this a model 10/25 rather than a 10/20.

The unit has a ID plate on the bottom which says model D68-229

Floppy drive
The floppy unit has two 8 inch hard  sectored drives. The floppy disk has sector holes to indicate each sector on disk. These disks have the sector holes at perimeter of the disk. This is a Verbatim FD65-1000 flexible disk. But there were other makes that were compatible with the Memorex 651 drive. For example, Dysan FDIV, Nashua FD-165, 3M 740-32 and Memorex FD VI. The Memorex 651 drive has 65 tracks compared with usual 77 tracks.

Floppy ID

This is the model ID plate on the bottom of the disk unit.

SPD assembler

We have some documentation and software for this machine. For example this manual on how to do assembly programming on it.

Some ads for Incoterm products I have found on the net.

The ad for the SPD 900 seems to have the same green color as our unit.
SPD 900 Ad

Inside the display unit

Incoterm TopView

To the there are four cards from left to right, I Id them as follows: LEFT1, LEFT2, DUMMY and LEFT4.

To the right there are four cards from the rightmost card to inwards: RIGHT1, RIGHT2, DUMMY, DUMMY.

The rear cards are counted from the rearmost card as RMTU, CPU, DATAPATH, CORE, MEMDRIVER.






Core Memory

Memory Driver

IO board 1 LEFT


IO Board 2 LEFT


IO Board 4 LEFT


IO Board 1 RIGHT (Display board)

IO Board 2 Right (Keyboard)


Dummy board